ALGAE GREEN FUEL TECHNOLOGY
FOR GLOBAL ENERGY NEEDS
ALGAE GREEN FUEL TECHNOLOGY:
HYDRODRIVE ALGAE GREEN FUEL TECHNOLOGY makes use of " A PROCESS AND SYNTHESIZER FOR MOLECULAR ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS" patented in Great Britain (GB 2397782), India (200286),Canada (2,464,955),Philippines (1-2002-000238) and rights protected in the USA, JAPAN, CHINA and in other countries to produce HIGH CETANE GREEN SYNTHETIC DIESEL with CETANE INDEX ABOVE 80 from the ALGAE OIL at the most economical cost, to GROW AND MULTIPLY ALGAE FASTER and MAKE ALGAE ABSORB CO2 and OXIDES OF NITROGEN dissolved in the water as well as to get SPECIAL FORM OF HYDROGEN ( H +) separated from water making it OH rich.
WHAT MAKES ALGAE -THE FUTURE FOR HIGH CETANE GREEN SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL?.
Algae can be found almost everywhere — oceans, ponds, swimming pools, and common goldfish bowls. While algae are not truly plants, these single-celled organisms have the same photosynthetic ability to convert sunlight into chemical energy. The various species are Blue Green Algae, Filamentous Algae, Pond Algae, Horsehair Algae, Toxic Algae, Algae Diatoms, Green Algae, Brown Algae, Pond Moss, Pond Scum. For some species of algae, this chemical energy is in the form of oils very similar to common vegetable oil.
Over the last 20 years microalgae production volumes have increased strongly. The cultivation of microalgaeis is proven to be the most profitable business in the biotechnology industry. It is a wasteless, ecologically pure, energy- and resource-saving process. Microalgae are a diverse group of microscopic plants with a wide range of physiological and biochemical characteristics and contain, among other things, high quantities of natural proteins, enzymes, amino acids, pigments, 30% lipids, over 40% glycerol, up to 8-10% carotene and a fairly high concentration of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, K, D etc, compared with other plants or animals. Moreover, microalgae are important raw materials for amino acids, and other medically important products.
Microalgae, like higher plants, produce and store lipids in the form of triacyglycerols (TAGs). TAGs could be used to produce a wide variety of chemicals, i.e.fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), which can be used as a substitute for fossil fuel-derived diesel. This fuel, known as biodiesel, can be synthesised from TAGs via a simple transesterification reaction in the presence of acid or base and methanol. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources especially for biodiesel production for the main reasons:
• The yields of oil from algae are orders of magnitude
higher than those for normal oilseeds.
• Algae can be grown away from farms and forests, thus
minimising the damage caused to the eco and food
chain systems. They are also harvested very quickly,
dramatically speeding up production process.
The oils from algae is processed and used to produce HIGH CETANE SYNTHETIC GREEN DIESEL with the patented HYDRODRIVE'S SYNTHESIZER in the EUROPE and the QUALITY OF FUEL stands tested to be far superior than the petrodiesel. .
ALGAE DO NOT GRAB FOOD CULTIVATION LAND AND INFLATE FOOD, EDIBLE OIL PRICES:
Algae’s single-celled structure is extremely efficient in using sun light and absorption of nutrients. Algae’s growth and productivity is 30 to 100 times higher than crops like soybeans, rapeseed or jetropha.
Algae production does not compete with agriculture. Algae production facilities are in closed enclosures and do not require soil for growth. Algae use 99% less water than conventional agriculture. Algae can be located on non-agricultural land far from water. Whole organism in algae converts sunlight into oil. Algae can produce more oil in an area the size of a two-car garage than an entire football field of soybeans/corn/rapeseed or jetropha.
Algae can be grown in sewage and next to power-plant/cement plant smokestacks where they digest the pollutants to produce oil.
To produce the required amount of biodiesel by growing soybeans would require almost 3bn acres of soybeans fields, or over 1bn acres of canola fields at nominal yields of 48 and 127 gallons of oil per acre, respectively. Conversely to produce 15,000 gallons of oil per acre from algae would require only approximately 9.5m acres.
• Microalgae grow much faster than the land grown plants,
often 100 times faster;
ALGAE OIL PRODUCTION IS INFINITELY SCALEABLE:
The right naturally occurring algae species can, under just the right conditions, produce oil at near-theoretical limits. Their small size less than 30 microns and aquatic nature makes them ideal for a large-scale, highly automated, closed production system called a PHOTO BIO REACTOR. Microalgae have uniform cell structures with no bark, stems, branches or leaves, allowing easier extraction of products and higher utilisation of microalgae cells. Large scale systems are highly-tuned to provide each cell the precise conditions needed for maximum productivity with light and carbon di oxide sensors for faster multiplication and yield. The cellular uniformity of microalgae makes it practical to manipulate and control growing conditions for the optimization of cell properties. This means that even land not suitable for farming can be used to grow algae. Furthermore, this may be beneficial to countries not capable of raising crops due to their economy; the relative cheapness of growing biodiesel algae could be a saviour for them.
ALGAE EAT AND DIGEST GLOBAL WARMING CARBON DI OXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, EXHAUST GASES AND POLLUTANTS:
Algae live on a high concentration of carbon dioxide-the GREEN HOUSE GAS (GHG), nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-a pollutant of power plants and diesel exhaust. These pollutants in the atmosphere from the automobiles, cement plants, breweries, fertilizer plants, steel plants are nutrients for the algae. Algae production facilities can thus be fed with the exhaust gases from fossil fuels of these plants to significantly increase productivity and clean up the air.
It is known that the biological method is considered the most eff ective and economically efficient manner for the purification of industrial wastewater by using the microbiological active slime and algae. However, bacteria of the active slime have low stability to high concentrations of organic and mineral components. This method also requires further destruction of superfluous quantities of active slime, which also contains other pathogenic microorganisms. Microalgae on the other hand possess higher stability, which enables their use in more concentrated and toxic environments. One specific species of algae utilises mineral elements, spirits, sugar, and amino acids, and compared to active slime, enables higher purification rates up to 96-98% for organic and 80% for mineral components. It also has organic acids which prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in solution. For example, a chemical plant in europe demonstrated high levels of cleaning of its phenol wastewaters from this specific algae species. Similar observations have been made at a nitric acid fertilizer and sugar plants, as well as cattle-breeding and poultry farming establishment. Sewage derived raw materials, which at present pollute the environment, and simultaneously provides biological clearing for these wastewaters creating an additional source of profit is possible with algae.
ALGAE OIL BYPRODUCTS:
The Oxygen can be used for the hospitals and industries.
The carbohydrates remaining after the oil has been extracted from the algae and can be used to make animal feed.
During 2007, the primary goal was to increase the feed assimilability, but it was achievable principally by using small concentrations of powdered activated carbon and adding enzymes, raising only the degree of cellulose hydrolysis, assimilability and the commodity weight of production per feed unit. This one-sided approach has resulted in product quality impairment and a decrease in animal resistance to illnesses. Furthermore, an acute increase of frequency of mass epidemics among animals and poultry in various countries was observed. This has caused great economic damage to manufacturers and whole countries. The manufacture of vaccines against mass epidemics requires enormous feats of organization and is not always effective. A notable example was a new strain of H5N1 avian flu virus, which, at the end of 2006, was detected in China and was resistant to previously-produced vaccines.
Another problem faced today is the consequences caused by the over-use of antibiotics in animal feed. While antibiotics were proven to be effective in improving poultry production, their use came under pressure as an increasing number of consumers feared that their inclusion in animal feed rations would lead to antibiotic resistant bacteria that are pathogenic to humans.
In 2005 the EU removed the last antibiotic growth promoters from pig and poultry diets. The search for alternatives to these additives continues to attract intense interest. As consensus begins to develop among the scientific community on this subject, a few approaches stand out in terms of efficacy, technological and economical feasibility, particularly in terms of organic acids and the use of essential or botanical oils. Organic acids provide a natural alternative, reducing production of toxic components by bacteria and causing a change in the morphology of the intestinal wall that reduces colonization of pathogens, thus preventing damage to the epithelial cells. Anions of organic acids deactivate the RNA transferase enzyme, which damage the nucleic acid multiplication process and eventually result in death of the organisms. But the use of organic acids and essential oils in the feed industry are potentially a source of other problems: corrosion, worker safety, handling, vitamin stability in pre-mixes, environmental concerns, and the stability of products.
With all this in mind, the use of algae as a feed additive could become the best solution, since microalgae contain natural organic acids that reduce colonization of pathogens. Thanks to this feature, of a specific species of algae towards feed conservation and reduction of microbiological pollution of wastewaters.
Some specific species of algae possesses other biologically attractive priorities, such as:
• A high concentration of chlorophyll (5-10 times)
Chlorophyll is an effective means for the treatment of
anaemia, pancreatitis, skin ulcers and diabetes.
• A unique cell wall which consists of three layers; a middle part
consists of cellulose, and the outer layer is formed of polymeric
carotene which is capable of adsorbing toxic elements and
removing them from organisms.
• High contents of vitamins, especially pro-vitamin A carotene
which not only plays an important role during the growth
process, but destroys cancer cells in their initial stages and
improves the generation of macrobacteriophage in the immune
An ability to intensively synthesize high concentration of nucleonic acids with a combination of high contents of fibres, peptides, amino acids, vitamins, sugars and trace elements. Not only does this promote rapid reproduction of algae, but as a growth factor also provides favourable conditions for algae use in other organisms.
The potential poultry demand for microalgae powder (as feed additives) is US$8.8m in the Armenian domestic market, more than US$1.2-7.2b in the US, more than US$1.4bn in China, and US$600m in Iran.
The specific algae is microscopic, green, single cell organism with a diameter of 3-10μm. During 12 hours the cell undergoes four-fold reproduction in optimum conditions. Compared to traditional plants, water consumption is 10-times lower. The biomass yield per unit area is five times higher.
ALGAE FOR CEMENT AND POWER PLANTS POLLUTION CONTROL:
In general, traditional large scale biomass sources are not yet practical for the cement and power plant industry. Furthermore, not all biomass sources are available all the year-round for this application. The exhaust steam and effluent gases emitted from cement and thermoelectric power plants could be used for microalgae suspension heating in pools and biomass all year round. During microalgae aeration of effluent gases, CO2 is turned into O2 by photosynthesis, further potentially reducing industrial CO2 industrial emissions
Microalgae production and its biomass use for biofuel industry has global prospects and may provide sustainable economic development. It is possible to expect that in the near future algae will solve fuel problems and also will improve the quality of life of farmers, thus leading to a global re-orientation of priorities for fuel production.
Microalgae production may turn out to be a truly global way to settle global warming problems and farmers poverty problems in all developing countries.
WHAT HYDRODRIVE SYNTHESIZER DO WITH ALGAE BIOFUEL?:
HYDRODRIVE SYNTHESIZER makes use of the patented process to synthesis the algae biofuel upon excitation by waves resulting in plasma catalysis yielding HIGH CETANE GREEN SYNTHETIC DIESEL with better cloud point, changed physical properties such as HIGH CETANE INDEX above 80 with excellent combustion and emission properties such as NOx free emission than the petro diesel at a cost very much less than the conventional petro diesel and also for use as an additive to improve the existing petro diesel qualities.
CO2 & NO2 ABSORBTION BY ALGAE CONVERTED TO BIOFUEL
HIGH CETANE SYNTHETIC GREEN DIESEL BY THE PATENTED PROCESS AND THE SYNTHESIZER
INVENTION MANUFACTURED AND EXPORTED BY HYDRODRIVE FOR THE MOLECULAR ENGINEERING PROCESS
The following species listed are
currently being studied for their suitability as a mass-oil producing crop,
across various locations worldwide.
· Neochloris oleoabundans - A microalga belonging in the class Chlorophyceae
· Scenedesmus dimorphus - A unicellular algae in the class Chlorophyceae. While this is one of the preferred species for oil yield for
biodiesel one of the problems with Scenedesmus is that it's heavy, and forms thick sediments if not kept in constant agitation.
· Euglena gracilis
· Phaeodactylum tricornutum -A diatom
· Pleurochrysis carterae - A unicellular coccolithophorid alga that has the ability to calcify subcellularly. It is a member of the class Haptophyta (Prymnesiophyceae)
· Prymnesium parvum -A toxic algae
· Tetraselmis chui - A marine unicellular alga
· Tetraselmis suecica
Isochrysis galbana - A microalga.
Nannochloropsis salina – This is also called Nannochloris oculata. In the same group are Nannochloris atomus Butcher, Nannochloris
maculata Butcher, Nannochloropsis gaditana Lubian, and Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop)
Algal strains such as Botryococcus braunii can produce long chain hydrocarbons representing 86% of its dry weight. The green alga
Botryococcus is unique in the quality and quantity of the liquid hydrocarbons it produces. Some scientists consider the ancestors of
Botryococcus to be responsible for many of the world's fossil fuel deposits.
Dunaliella tertiolecta - This strain is reported to have oil yield of about 37% (organic basis). D. tertiolecta is a fast growing strain and that
means it has a high CO2 sequestration rate as well.
the HYDRODRIVE'S patented SYNTHESIZER for MOLECULAR ENGINEERING ,the
LEVEL takes place in the
pre-cracked cells to complete the oil extraction. The result is
is a challenge
for the algae-to-oil
operating costs and
ALGAE GREEN DIESEL PROJECT IMPACT ON ECONOMY.
Dr.Paul De Vadder,Belgium.
Biofuels are Green
Technology. But few people knows about processing biofuels from micro-alguae.
Due to the
constant fluctuations and price increases of the fossil fuel, there is urgency
to find alternative sustainable ways to obtain fuel. Those are called today-
biofuels, But the first generation biofuel is not adapted as it could generate
the biggest alimentary crisis that the world has known. Do you know that a
country such as France would need to cultivate 118% of its total cultivable area
with sunflower, if it would only change the fossil fuel, used in the transport
sector, to biofuel? Since the end of the `70ies, the USA investigated
new way of fuel production. They are the real innovators in biofuel with the
invention of bio-algae cultivation …and they continue to improve this process
obtaining today 300.000 per Ha of this product….
the hydrocarbon fuel production with water plasma….
the same time, some researches,
not so ``mediated`` but even real and successful was the discovery that some
hydrogen could improve the combustion, without uneven effects and could divide
the consumption by 4…. (See researches f.e. University Tasmania).
Our way is
consequently the marriage of both technologies…what seems to be a great
are naturally very rich in triacylglycerols. ..and with the application of the
special hydrogen adjunction, the area, needed to fuel for example a power unit
are very reduced…Speaking conservatively, we need 250Ha cultivation of micro
algae to produce NET
250MW/H of electricity. By this, micro-algae fix the CO2 emitted in
the combustion in the gas turbines… When good managed, 90% of the pollutant
gas (also of the NOx), is re-absorbed to grew the micro algae. …there is no
need of fertilizers… Micro algae present this characteristic: its weight
doubles every 24 hour. But when in grown phase, this increases to 3.5
times…And respecting temperature and luminosity (We work with special hydrogen
heating & with special light (as in Netherlands greenhouses), the continuous modus of production is a fact…thus,
the power unit is insured against lake of fuel….because we only can produce ``on top`` 7 times the weight
of the algae in 24 hour. We are always sure of a reserve that we regulate
with more or lower addition of the special hydrogen…Always by this, we use
only areas improper for the ground cultivations. Thus, we don’t disturb the
alimentation cycles on the ground and we use the organic salt of cultivation from the (polluted)
waters of the sea or of the rivers.
The production with photobioreactors as a mixing
with the production in ``raceway``:
Generally, the culture is
initiated in tanks of little profundity, having a light turbulent flow, to
insure the correct mixing of the algae. At the end of 24 hour., the algae are
transfered to photo-bioreactors as shown in the example photos in
conjunction with our generators of special hydrogen
using Hydrodrive Synthesizer for Molecular Engineering of Materials..
the sedimentation of the algae is prohibited by special pumps that don`t destroy
the alge (fragil due to high turbulence and risks of obstruction of the pumps).
The culture is a continuous type of culture, 13% of CO2 is injected
in the reactors.In this, there is also injection of NOx.
polluting gases of the power plant process are IMMEDIATELY and directly
converted in the algae. Exceeding gases are collected and directed back to the
cultivation, while the algae are dried and taken to the IPGCC process.
PROCESS OUTPUT :
HIGH CETANE SYNTHETIC DIESEL : 3000 L/H
: 100 KW/H WITH PROE Engine.
: 10 L/H
POWER CONSUMPTION FOR THE PROCESS ( FROM THE ELECTRICITY GENERATED) :
: 80,85 KW/H.
First Hydrodrive: to ordinate correctly the molecules of the oil, in
order to obtain a full reaction. (Avoiding chiral situations).
Second Hydrodrive: to destroy
the residual gums and to avoid filter or injector’s obstructions.
· Note: :
1. Before the entrance of the second Hydrodrive, the temperature must be controlled and eventually lowered. 80°C is a
maximum temperature supported by the hydrodrive.
2. When working with 150 X 2 Hydrodrive’s to obtain 3.000 liters / hour of H-Syn-D, it is intention to work in an electronic
controlled tension division, maintaining always 10 circuits in stand-by mode.
The stand-by circuits should be opened automatically if required.
PROJECT INVOLVES PATENTED MATERIALS AND PATENTED TECHNOLOGIES OF USA, INDIA , BENULUX, SWITZERLAND AND JOINT CO-OPERATION OF ROMANIA AND BENULUX AS PARTNERS.
The details based on PILOT PLANT STUDY OF ALGAE CULTIVATION on an area of 250 Ha and OIL SYNTHESIS using patented HYDRODRIVE SYNTHESIZER is as under:
PRODUCT AND BYPRODUCTS OUTPUT:
GREEN DIESEL for sale : 23,00,000 Litres per hour
Animal Food in the form of oil cakes : 31,70,000 Kiligrama per day.
OXYGEN for Sale per day : 18,000 Litres (Rest is restituted to Nature)
CARBON CREDITS are for the SYSTEM SUPPLIER.
RURAL WORKERS : 15,000
SKILLED WORKERS : 2000
TRANSPORT COMPANY : 250
INDIRECT JOBS : 450
LIFE AND ECONOMY OF FARMERS GET UPLIFTED IN ALL COUNTRIES.
Ethanol distilleries in India have Cane Sugar Molasses as raw Material. CO2 is released in the process in highly concentrated form. It can profitably converted to grow Algae for oil extraction. By this the CO2 which is released into atmosphere is also neutralized. Ethanol distilleries in India have Cane Sugar Molasses as raw Material. CO2 is released in the process in highly concentrated form. It can profitably converted to grow Algae for oil extraction. By this the CO2 which is released into atmosphere is also neutralized.
TYPICAL YIELD OF HIGH CETANE SYNTHETIC GREEN DIESEL FROM ALGAE WITH CETANE INDEX ABOVE 80:
For a 100 Kilo Liters per day distillery :
|Process||Raw Material||Product||CO2 Produced||Algae oil
can be Produced
|Fermentation||Cane Molasses||100 KL Ethanol||35 KL CO2||35 KL|
|BioGas Plant||Spent Wash||Methane||35 KL CO2||35 KL|
|Power Generators||Methane||40 KL CO2||40 KL|
Algae in a square acre, yields around 100,000 gallons of algae oil per year.